India Natural Environment

Geography of India 

India has an area of nearly 3 million sq km, which can be divided into three main geographical regions.

The Himalayas form India’s northern borders with China, Nepal and Bhutan.   Movements of the earth’s crust pushing the Indian subcontinent plate against the Asian plate created these mountains.  These movements are still occurring, causing periodic earthquakes.  The Himalayan system is made up of three parallel ranges, the Greater Himalayas, the Lesser Himalayas, and the Outer Himalayas

The Greater Himalayas averages about 6,000 meters in height and contains the three highest mountains on earth: Mount Everest (8,796 m) on the China-Nepal border; K2 (8,611 m) in an area claimed by India, Pakistan, and China; and Kanchenjunga (8,598 meters) on the India-Nepal border.  The Karakoram Range in the west is where India, Pakistan and China meet.  The Lesser Himalayas, in the states (from west to east) of Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh, ranges from 1,500 to 5,000 m in height.  The well-known hill station Darjeeling is in this region.  The Outer Himalayas, averaging 900 to 1,200 m above sea level, is the southern-most range.

Between the ranges are plateaus, gorges, and valleys, including Kashmir and Kulu.   North-eastern India adjacent to Burma and Bangladesh consists of hills averaging between 1,000 and 2,000 m in elevation, but are not associated with the Himalayas.

The next region is the Indo-Gangetic Plain.  The Ganges river is about 2,500 km long and the basin is from 320 to 640 km wide.  The plain makes up more than 25 percent of India’s land area and extends from the Indus River basin to the Haryana Plains and finally to the Ganga delta in Bangladesh.  The Ganges originates from the glaciers of the Greater Himalayas; before it flows into the Bay of Bengal, it is joined by the mighty Brahmaputra River flowing south from Bangladesh. 

The third region is the triangle-shaped peninsula, which starts in the north from the escarpments of the Vindhya Range.  The peninsula has an elevation ranging from about 300 m to 1,800 m.  The central part of the peninsula slopes down eastwards.  Therefore, many rivers, such as the Krishna and the Kaveri flow eastwards into the Bay of Bengal.  The regions between the peninsula and the seas are coastal plains, estuaries, marshes and river deltas.

Apart from the three main regions are two main island groups: the Andaman and Nicolar Islands in the Bay of Bengal about 1,000 km off the peninsula, which have over 200 islands extending more than 1,000 km from north to south.  In the Arabian Sea are the Lakshadweep islands which are mainly of coral origin spread over 77,000 sq km.  The total land area of the islands is less than one percent of the entire country.


Last edited Feb 6, 09 9:04 AM. Contributors: Contributors: Andrew W.
India Climate 

Generally apart from the Himalayan region, most of India is hot; but the southwest monsoon (from June to September) brings heavy rains and high humidity, and lower temperature.  As a generalisation, in the summer months (March to May), the temperature can be up to 48°C.   Most rain falls during the southwest monsoon season (June to September) in all regions and the weather tends to become cooler.  October to November is the northeast monsoon season, with less rain falling.  Winter is from December to February and is dryer and cooler.


Despite the above generalisation, India has several climatic zones caused by their geographical locations and altitude, and the temperatures and precipitations in each location can vary from year to year.


In the Himalayas, the temperatures become cooler in higher altitudes.  For land above 4,500 m, the temperature tends to be below freezing.  However, in the lower-lying valleys and basins, the summer temperature can be in the low 30s Celsius.


In the Indian northeast region of Assam and West Bengal, the climate is wet and humid and hot in the south near the Bay of Bengal, but is much cooler in the Himalayan portion of the states, such as at the Darjeeling Hill Station.

For the Ganges basin, the temperatures and precipitations vary from the west to the east.  Average annual rainfall increases as one moves from the west (about 60 cm) to the east (about 150 cm).  During the spring, parts of the Ganges basin especially around Delhi tend to be foggy.

In the Peninsula, the Western Ghats region (off the Arabian Sea) receives much heavier rain than the Eastern Ghats (off the Bay of Bengal).

The southwest monsoon, which comes from the Arabian Sea from June to September, accounts for most of the India’s rainfall.  The northeast monsoon comes in November and December with wind from the northeast bringing rain to the states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Kerala.


Last edited Feb 6, 09 9:08 AM. Contributors: Contributors: Andrew W.
New Delhi, Delhi & Surrounding Region, India
New Delhi is an example of extreme climate. If you are planning a visit you must consider the time you are planning to land here. The best time to come here is between February and May and then again between October and November. December-January is cold and foggy and June is very hot (50 C) and July-September is humid and hot. Its also a good place to base your travel to places like Agra, Jaipur if you are keen for a day trip.
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Belgaum, Southwestern India, India
Belgaum is a small city in Karnataka, India. It is well know for its pleasent climate. You can say this is the best place for a retired life. Its very green with a lot of trees and lot of near by picnic spots. Famous tourist destination GOA is just 150Kms from Belgaum.The transportation facility here is also good. You can easily get buses from/to Pune, Bangalore,Goa,Mumbai. Also the train is a very convinent option for people who are travelling from/to Mumbai,Delhi or Bangalore. Also there are flights everyday from/to Mumbai or Bangalore. This place is has a very good climate. The best part I like about belgaum is the food. You get very deliciuos food out here. You can get all types of food out here. Belgaum has a huge industrial belt. Most of the metal casting used by industries all over India are manufactured in belgaum. Also it is famous for its Engineering and Medical colleges. You can get decent accom
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Tinsukia, Northeastern India, India has a really hot dont forget ur sunblock,glasses and a cap..........and drink lots of water to be hydrated.........u can travel there by train....accomodation is quite cheap........
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Jammu, Himalayan North, India
lots of temples!!!//////////................good weather....carry enuff cash..........
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Ahmadnagar, Western India, India
sleepy small town in the middle of india, en route to aurangabad. has great weather and a beautiful army cantonment with well preserved colonial structures.
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