Iran Natural Environment
Iran has an area of 1,648,000 sq km and is situated in southwestern Asia above the Persian Gulf . On its western and northwestern borders are Iraq , Turkey , Armenia and Azerbaijan ; to its east and northeast are Turkmenistan , Afghanistan and Pakistan . To the north of the country lies the Caspian Sea , which is also surrounded by Azerbaijan , Russia , Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan .
Much of the country is made up of rugged mountains, including the volcano Damavand in the Alborz mountain chain around the Caspian Sea , and the Zagros Mountains which run from the northwest to southeast, right to the edge of the Persian Gulf . Many of the peaks in these mountain ranges are over 3,000 meters above sea level. In between the mountains are plateaus parts of which lie up to 1,000 meters above sea level.
The terrain of the rest of the country is quite varied. In the southwest along the Iraqi border are lowlands, which are covered mainly by marshes. In the central and southeast regions of the country lie two salt deserts, the Desht-e Kavir and the Dasht-e Lut, which obviously have hot and arid climates.
Iran lies in an earthquake-prone region, and recent history saw the occurrence of several devastating earthquakes.
Iran generally receives low precipitation all year round throughout the country, except for mountainous regions which receive snow in the winter and along the Caspian Sea which receive more rainfall.
There are variations in the temperature among different regions. In the north, the winter temperatures can fall below freezing and the summers are hot. In the south, the winters are milder and the summers are hotter. For the desert region, the summer temperatures can exceed 50 degrees Celsius. In the marshlands of the southwest, the climate is humid and hot.
Bradt Travel Guides